三台| 衢州| 安阳| 长兴| 西青| 鄱阳| 靖远| 古蔺| 稻城| 宜丰| 礼泉| 姚安| 桦川| 台儿庄| 吉隆| 光泽| 宝鸡| 都匀| 高州| 凌海| 南澳| 峨山| 五家渠| 崇明| 本溪市| 遂溪| 龙泉| 会宁| 漯河| 常山| 平利| 峨眉山| 遂宁| 高雄县| 温泉| 灵川| 宁阳| 通山| 高雄市| 久治| 珲春| 霍邱| 富阳| 广平| 应城| 阳新| 芦山| 大姚| 下花园| 邳州| 苍溪| 连平| 永济| 湟中| 石柱| 大英| 江川| 红原| 歙县| 苍南| 周村| 金秀| 定边| 大方| 亚东| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 雁山| 仁布| 临朐| 福贡| 文安| 临汾| 天祝| 岱山| 稷山| 南澳| 五指山| 理塘| 平坝| 文安| 原平| 长春| 丹寨| 方正| 保亭| 阿拉尔| 泉州| 磐安| 红古| 儋州| 下花园| 宣汉| 资源| 密山| 兴和| 南康| 滑县| 新洲| 环县| 五家渠| 民勤| 遂平| 兴文| 岳普湖| 龙海| 梨树| 兰西| 武都| 曲松| 潜江| 江西| 霸州| 平鲁| 陵县| 昌宁| 芜湖县| 文昌| 江阴| 尤溪| 六安| 道县| 汤阴| 镇宁| 焦作| 罗定| 衢州| 印江| 常山| 会同| 金塔| 进贤| 东西湖| 泸州| 雷州| 江城| 和硕| 奉化| 威信| 旌德| 杜集| 无为| 开封市| 云南| 民乐| 大新| 宁国| 长海| 凌海| 新宾| 邗江| 乌当| 兴宁| 息县| 榆树| 苍梧| 丰台| 北安| 孝感| 塔城| 平罗| 扶绥| 漳平| 覃塘| 绛县| 丹江口| 遵义县| 尉犁| 荔浦| 垫江| 顺平| 东胜| 化隆| 平谷| 曲靖| 云安| 错那| 和硕| 合江| 磴口| 应城| 图木舒克| 炉霍| 开江| 富裕| 阿城| 射洪| 克拉玛依| 深泽| 金山屯| 枣强| 济南| 无为| 红安| 泰来| 岳普湖| 玛沁| 剑河| 平阴| 西畴| 常州| 高明| 龙川| 兰州| 霍邱| 惠农| 缙云| 株洲县| 方山| 安化| 新乐| 千阳| 溧水| 波密| 孟津| 从江| 铁山港| 罗甸| 萨嘎| 紫金| 南充| 台中市| 张家界| 金坛| 涟水| 麻阳| 普洱| 漯河| 辽源| 光泽| 鄂温克族自治旗| 宁都| 绩溪| 峰峰矿| 高青| 铜鼓| 南沙岛| 朝阳县| 义县| 金口河| 邢台| 衡南| 托里| 岑巩| 乐山| 襄樊| 攸县| 保靖| 华县| 宁阳| 新乐| 台南市| 阿城| 云阳| 大化| 叙永| 牙克石| 小金| 新丰| 东丽| 广丰| 颍上| 上犹| 蓬安|

贵州:打造“黔系列”,助推民族文化产业品牌化

2019-08-24 02:11 来源:百度健康

  贵州:打造“黔系列”,助推民族文化产业品牌化

  中国新闻网声明:媒介合作需合法依约规范有序中国新闻网(简称中新网)由国家级、国际性通讯社——中国新闻社(简称中新社)主办。TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()A30-meter-tallmatryoshkadoll,deemedthelargestofitskindworldwide,hasbecomeamajorattractioninManchuria,China,anditissurroundedby30exquisiteEastereggtryosh,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()TheMatryoshkaPiazzainManchuria,NorthChinasInnerMongoliaautonomousregion,June5,2018.()

很多考生、家长对于公开的高考政策和信息缺乏了解,或因条件所限无法全面了解,因此容易受到虚假大学的诱惑。BicyclecartsandbamboobirdcagesQianmenDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Inthe1990s,whiletravelingthroughBeijingtowardsouthwestChinaIwouldalwaysspendafewdaysincreasingmyknowledgeofthecity’“Qianmen-Dashilar”appearedinmydiarynotesfromthosedays—anareaIdiscoveredtobebustlingwithstreetlifewhileretainingmuchofthecapital,acafeoverlookingthemassiveZhengyangmenGatecomplex,Iatebreakfast,satatthewindowanddreamed—dreamsofBeijing,theareaIwasinanditsmanyfacetsandepisodeswithinthecity’,butthelocalnameWestHeyanStreet,orWestRiverbankStreet,(ArrowTower)isonthecity’,“FrontGate”oftheMingDynastywallsseparatingtheimperialgrandeurofthenorthfromthevibrant,,re,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ItwassouthalongthatroutetheemperorswouldbecarriedtowardstheTempleofHeavenforritualceremoniesbutitwasalsothroughtheJianloupassagewaywhereofficialsandtheirfamilieswouldemergeintothebustlingareasofQianmenandDashilar,ascommerceandentertainmentwektoweroftheformerZhengyangmenRailwayStation—theoriginal“Beijingstation”,,andanelemen,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Nextdoor,onQianmenEastStreet,theBeijingPlanningExhib,andbeamazedatthehaphazardlenortharoundDongsi,XisiandZhonggulou,’snarrowestalley,Qianshior“moneymarket”Hutong,,with26mintsproducingcoppercoinsforthecity’,particularlyitswesternside,washometoseveralofChina’searlyfinancialhouses—indeed,walkalongWestHeyanStreetandthereareseverallargeEuropeanclassica,,,atthattime,fascinatingdiscoveriesthroughareasofmainlylow-riseresidentialandcommercialbuildings,includingthe“UndergroundCity”—amazeofanti-nuclearevacuationtunnelsthatwereopentovisitorsatthattime,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)How,itsfamed“TimeHonoredBrands”—shopsrenownedfortheirhats,silks,foodstuffs,’sfirstcinema,Daguanlou,,featuringasculptureofthefatherofChinesecinema,dong,,itsprestige,runningsouthfromQianmentoZhushikouWestStreet,datesfrom2008andwasmodified,DashilarWestStreetwaspedestrianizedintoacommerciallaneandhomeforlocalprodu(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Simplyleavingthemainbywaycanleadintoalleyslinedwi—therewouldbemanycol,DashilarisbeingseenbytravelguideslikeLonelyPlanetasbecominga”hip”’slocal-styleArtDecobuildingsbecomingcentersforcontemporaryart,erseasbackpackersandtravelers,peoplewhoprefertospendtimeinlocalareasfilleoundingrooftops,whilelookingdownonthevarietyofdomesticandWester’,studentsoftengohomebybicyclecarts,,Tan’erleadstonorth-runningYanshouStreet,shistory,andforaphotographer,aplacetoca(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TodaytheQianmen-DashilararearemainsasasmallenclavewithinthegreaterareaofBeijing,butitsmanysurviving,twisting,mindedmemoreofavillagewithinacity,ramswhileschoolchildrenplayedont,—thepeoplewhomakethisoneofthemostfascinatingpartsofoldBeijingtoexplore,andwhere(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)QianmenDajieandJianlouTower2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Remindersofthepast-formerhomesandformerfactorybuildingsineasternQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)RooftopsandtraditionalbuildingsofDashilarandQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Schoolisout!TanerHutong2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TheschoolrunTanerHutongDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ThesecuritymanandvistortoDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TraditionalfoodsinDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)

  AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)TwobirdsrestonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)BrocadepaintingTheDrunkenBeautydisplayedattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()ExhibitionReconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofChineseSilkopenCultureDepartment,andorganizedbytheChinaNationalSilkMuseum,theexhibitionisanotherhighlightoftheChineseCultureandTourismMinistrysinternationalprogramofChinaWeek:InheritanceandInnovat,thenewexhibitionpresentsthetechniquesandcharmoftheancientChinesesilkthroughfoursub-themes:Broderie,Impression,Tissage,andTeinture,thatis,embroidery,printing,nJune5,2018.()ZhouWei,theevent’scuratorandassistanttothedirectoroftheChinaNationalSilkMuseum,saidtheexhibitioninfusednewdesignswithtraditionalcraftsman,thecenteralsoheldapubliclectureon"ReconstructionofChineseSilksDesignMaterials"onJune4,andanindustrialexchangemeetingthemed"Reconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofSilk"()Theindustryexchangemeetingon"Reconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofSilk"isheldattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()TheexhibitionhallofTeinture.()AmodelshowsasilkflowerdressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()AmodelsshowsasilkdressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()AmodelshowssilkscarvesandhandbagsattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()VisitorslookatanembroidereddressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()

  AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)TheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasleaderKimJongUnandUSPresidentDonaldTrumparrivedinSingaporeonSundayaheadofthefirsteverface-to-facemeetingbetweenleadersofthetwocountries,sontheagendaattheon-off-onsummitWhosinSingaporeKimandTrumparrivedi,:DPRK:leaderKimJongUn,hissisterKimYoJong,ForeignMinisterRiYongHo,DefenseMinisterNoKwangChol,:PresidentDonaldTrump,SecretaryofStateMikePompeo,AmbassadortothePhilippinesSungKim,ChiefofStaffJohnKelly,DeputyChiefofStaffJoeHagin,PresSecretarySarahSanders,NationalSecurityAdvisorJohnBolton,tballstarDennisRodman,whohasmadeseveralvisitstoPyongyang,stheformatThemeetingbetweentheleadersi,,butwhetheraformsWangGuanreportedthataone-o,Trumpsaid:“Well,,because,youknow,asadealperson,Ihavedoneverywellwithdeals.”–hed"love"toplaygolfwithKim,butwonsontheagendayang,foreigninvestmentintheDPRK,thegrantingofsecurityassurances,sstatemediaoutletKCNAsaidonMondaythata"permanentanddurablepeace-keepingmechanism"ontheKoreanPeninsula,denuclearizationof"committedtothecomplete,verifiable,irreversibledenuclearisationoftheKoreanpeninsula."Anagreementonwhat"denuclearization"meoselywatchedasthecontent–aphotooftheleadersshakinghandswouldbehistoric,a,,,willbecloselywatched,aswillthetroupeofDPRKbodyguardswhomadeheadlinesduringKim,withroadsandhotelsinSingaporesecuredbfortheleaderstogettoknoweachother,sothemostlikelyoutcome–ifrelationsarecordial–"ifitgoeswell","spurofthemoment."

BrocadepaintingTheDrunkenBeautydisplayedattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()ExhibitionReconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofChineseSilkopenCultureDepartment,andorganizedbytheChinaNationalSilkMuseum,theexhibitionisanotherhighlightoftheChineseCultureandTourismMinistrysinternationalprogramofChinaWeek:InheritanceandInnovat,thenewexhibitionpresentsthetechniquesandcharmoftheancientChinesesilkthroughfoursub-themes:Broderie,Impression,Tissage,andTeinture,thatis,embroidery,printing,nJune5,2018.()ZhouWei,theevent’scuratorandassistanttothedirectoroftheChinaNationalSilkMuseum,saidtheexhibitioninfusednewdesignswithtraditionalcraftsman,thecenteralsoheldapubliclectureon"ReconstructionofChineseSilksDesignMaterials"onJune4,andanindustrialexchangemeetingthemed"Reconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofSilk"()Theindustryexchangemeetingon"Reconstruction:TechniquesandDesignofSilk"isheldattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()TheexhibitionhallofTeinture.()AmodelshowsasilkflowerdressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()AmodelsshowsasilkdressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()AmodelshowssilkscarvesandhandbagsattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()VisitorslookatanembroidereddressattheParisChinaCulturalCenteronJune5,2018.()

    ——2016年5月20日,习近平主持召开中央全面深化改革领导小组第二十四次会议  谈社会治理  社会治理精细化  各级党委和政府要强化互联网思维,善于利用互联网优势,着力在融合、共享、便民、安全上下功夫,推进政府决策科学化、社会治理精细化、公共服务高效化,用信息化手段更好感知社会态势、畅通沟通渠道、辅助决策施政、方便群众办事,做到心中有数。

    6月的青岛,风景如画。RussianteenagericehockeyplayerslearnaboutkungfuduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)RussianteenagericehockeyplayerslearnaboutkungfuduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ZhangYe,principalofBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchool,presentsgiftstovisitingRussianteenagericehockeyplayersinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ARussianteenagericehockeyplayershowsaChinesecalligraphyworkduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

    经过十分钟的对峙,小猫终于屈服了,被救援人员提溜着带出了井口,小猫一被带出井口放到地上,就一溜烟跑掉了。

  AsoldierfromtheGurkhaunitisondutytoensurethesecurityfortheupcomingTrump-KimsummitinSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)DPRKleadune12attheCapellaHotelonSentosaIsland,(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)PolicegatheroutsidetheIstana,theofficialresidenceandofficeofthePresidentofSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)BicyclecartsandbamboobirdcagesQianmenDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Inthe1990s,whiletravelingthroughBeijingtowardsouthwestChinaIwouldalwaysspendafewdaysincreasingmyknowledgeofthecity’“Qianmen-Dashilar”appearedinmydiarynotesfromthosedays—anareaIdiscoveredtobebustlingwithstreetlifewhileretainingmuchofthecapital,acafeoverlookingthemassiveZhengyangmenGatecomplex,Iatebreakfast,satatthewindowanddreamed—dreamsofBeijing,theareaIwasinanditsmanyfacetsandepisodeswithinthecity’,butthelocalnameWestHeyanStreet,orWestRiverbankStreet,(ArrowTower)isonthecity’,“FrontGate”oftheMingDynastywallsseparatingtheimperialgrandeurofthenorthfromthevibrant,,re,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ItwassouthalongthatroutetheemperorswouldbecarriedtowardstheTempleofHeavenforritualceremoniesbutitwasalsothroughtheJianloupassagewaywhereofficialsandtheirfamilieswouldemergeintothebustlingareasofQianmenandDashilar,ascommerceandentertainmentwektoweroftheformerZhengyangmenRailwayStation—theoriginal“Beijingstation”,,andanelemen,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Nextdoor,onQianmenEastStreet,theBeijingPlanningExhib,andbeamazedatthehaphazardlenortharoundDongsi,XisiandZhonggulou,’snarrowestalley,Qianshior“moneymarket”Hutong,,with26mintsproducingcoppercoinsforthecity’,particularlyitswesternside,washometoseveralofChina’searlyfinancialhouses—indeed,walkalongWestHeyanStreetandthereareseverallargeEuropeanclassica,,,atthattime,fascinatingdiscoveriesthroughareasofmainlylow-riseresidentialandcommercialbuildings,includingthe“UndergroundCity”—amazeofanti-nuclearevacuationtunnelsthatwereopentovisitorsatthattime,(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)How,itsfamed“TimeHonoredBrands”—shopsrenownedfortheirhats,silks,foodstuffs,’sfirstcinema,Daguanlou,,featuringasculptureofthefatherofChinesecinema,dong,,itsprestige,runningsouthfromQianmentoZhushikouWestStreet,datesfrom2008andwasmodified,DashilarWestStreetwaspedestrianizedintoacommerciallaneandhomeforlocalprodu(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Simplyleavingthemainbywaycanleadintoalleyslinedwi—therewouldbemanycol,DashilarisbeingseenbytravelguideslikeLonelyPlanetasbecominga”hip”’slocal-styleArtDecobuildingsbecomingcentersforcontemporaryart,erseasbackpackersandtravelers,peoplewhoprefertospendtimeinlocalareasfilleoundingrooftops,whilelookingdownonthevarietyofdomesticandWester’,studentsoftengohomebybicyclecarts,,Tan’erleadstonorth-runningYanshouStreet,shistory,andforaphotographer,aplacetoca(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TodaytheQianmen-DashilararearemainsasasmallenclavewithinthegreaterareaofBeijing,butitsmanysurviving,twisting,mindedmemoreofavillagewithinacity,ramswhileschoolchildrenplayedont,—thepeoplewhomakethisoneofthemostfascinatingpartsofoldBeijingtoexplore,andwhere(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)QianmenDajieandJianlouTower2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Remindersofthepast-formerhomesandformerfactorybuildingsineasternQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)RooftopsandtraditionalbuildingsofDashilarandQianmen2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)Schoolisout!TanerHutong2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TheschoolrunTanerHutongDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)ThesecuritymanandvistortoDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)TraditionalfoodsinDashilar2015.(PhotobyBruceConnolly/)

    围绕高考招生已形成诈骗黑色产业链  除了最近曝出的“武汉经贸大学”这样的虚假大学,高考招生市场上还存在许多花样诈骗法。

  2020年全面建成小康社会,历史性地解决中华民族千百年来的绝对贫困问题,让现行标准下的贫困人口同全国人民一道迈入小康社会,是必须完成的重大任务,也是一项对中华民族、对整个人类都具有重大意义的伟业。

  VolunteerscleanwasteonbeachinDongshanCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/SongWeiwei)VolunteersfreefriesinSanya,southChinasHainanProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ChenWenwu)MembersofChinasAntarcticexpeditionputamicroplasticcollectorintothesea,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/BaiGuolong)CleanersclearthefloatingwasteinthefishbreedingraftsinHuangqiTownshipofLianjiangCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)ChinasmannedsubmersibleJiaolongispreparedtodiveintheYapTrenchinthewestPacific,June13,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiuShiping)PearlcultivatorstransfershellsatapearlcultivationfarminBeihaiCity,southChinasGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ZhangAilin)AlittlegirlstaysatacampinQingdaoHaichangPolarOceanParkinQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvince,May19,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AseaweedharvestboatsailsataseaweedfarminSanshaTownshipinXiapuCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong),2018showsthesceneryofXinyingmangrovenationalwetlandparkinsouthChina,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangEnyu)(2)经本网书面授权的媒体、网站,只能从“供稿服务”里下载取稿,使用时必须保留原电头“中新社”或“中新网”,并注明“稿件来源:中国新闻网”或“稿件来源:中新网”,违者本网将依法追究责任。

  

  贵州:打造“黔系列”,助推民族文化产业品牌化

 
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中国武术不能自欺欺人 黄飞鸿等宗师并非如国人所想

目前,中新网发现为数不少的商业网站大肆盗用中新社中新网版权信息,构成严重侵权事实,而且部分供稿客户和媒介合作伙伴在使用中新社中新网版权作品时,频频出现不规范用稿行为,主要表现为擅自使用中新网名义转载不规范来源网络信息、版权不明来源资讯,冒用中新网名义造成“合法转载发布新闻”假象,有的直接在中新网上扒取其他信息源稿件,冒名转载,籍此规避版权责任等等,严重影响中新网专业、负责的中央网络媒体品牌形象,并在一定范围内引起相关业务管理部门、合作媒体和广大网民的误解。


来源:FT中文网

近日,一条太极拳师数秒被散打拳击手击倒的视频迅速刷爆朋友圈。一时间,对中国传统武术的嘲笑和指责之声让传统武术同情者和练习者颇为尴尬。笔者作为一名拿过两枚广东省传统武术锦标赛一等奖的武术爱好者,也自然成

近日,一条太极拳师数秒被散打拳击手击倒的视频迅速刷爆朋友圈。一时间,对中国传统武术的嘲笑和指责之声让传统武术同情者和练习者颇为尴尬。笔者作为一名拿过两枚广东省传统武术锦标赛一等奖的武术爱好者,也自然成为“花架子”的代表。不过,与许多传统武术爱好者不同的是,笔者从不迷信中国武术的实战效果。以笔者所接触的中国武林来看,大部分的中国传统武师技击技能严重不足,我们所习练的武术反而更像在一套神秘主义话语包装下的传统健身操与传统哲学的综合体。

太极真的能实战吗?

缺少搏击训练的中国武术

笔者小时候曾经跟过两位师父学了三年的南拳、洪拳和蔡李佛。一位师父是广州当地赫赫有名的一位六段武师,另一位是湖南籍的散打拳击手——也教传统武术。两位师父弟子甚众,每日清晨在广场上扎马、走马、转马,之后开始习练各式套路和器械。学的日子久了,便可与师兄弟练对打的套路。在六段的师父那里,笔者从未见过师父与师兄弟进行过任何的搏击训练。那时候师父常说,套路练熟了便自然懂得打了。门派之间的切磋交流也很少“动手”,最多是“讲拳”,也就是四只手比划,再配合口头交流。只有极少数相对落后的地区,才会保留着真正比武对拆的传统。在经济发达的地区,都市男女细皮嫩肉,都不愿受伤。而在散打拳师那的时候,他每天都会让弟子们带上拳套和护具进行搏击训练。每每那时候,我们都发现传统武术的所谓招式极难完成。

后来受到一些电影的影响,笔者开始学习“内家拳”。内家拳是一类强调训练气息与内部力量整合的武术种类,最有名的便是太极、形意、八卦,这三类也称“上三拳”,也就是内家拳的集大成者。不过,内家拳也是中国故弄玄虚的神秘主义的重灾区。笔者曾经跟随一位拳师学习了六年的陈氏太极拳,大学时期跟随另一位拳师习练了五年的杨氏太极拳、程派八卦掌和尚派形意拳。大多数内家拳从根本上是相通的,功夫的练习都需要通过站桩和走桩练习整劲(训练力量整合),通过套路练习招式和演练功法。功夫练久了,师兄弟之间会通过推手等方式练习听劲和运劲。

中国武师一般都保守,真正的功夫基本不外传,只传给本家人和信任的弟子。这在很大程度上造成了功夫的失传。内家拳一般分为演法、练法、功法和打法,外人和不受信任的弟子看到的是演法和练法,也就是用于表演的套路和一些组合的动作练习。笔者比较幸运,后来跟随的武师是大学教授,只要德行尚可的弟子,所知皆倾囊相授。师父功夫极深,即便他单腿站立我们也推不动他,如果我一拳打在他腹部自己却会被弹开一米。前者是太极的定步功夫,讲究的是引劲落空。后者是形意拳的绷劲。不过,等笔者后来偷偷学习了咏春,与师父尝试自由搏击时,发现他也很艰难地应对高速变化的力量。

师父的师父也是一名大学教授。有趣的是,虽是名师亲传弟子,他却从不相信传统武术那套玄之又玄的理论,反而毕生致力于用人体力学解释传统武术。师祖功夫惊人,打擂台出身的他,身上似乎每个部位都能对人发动攻击。尽管师父习武二十余年,每次见到师祖都是三秒钟便趴地上。师祖的身上,颇有畅销书《逝去的武林》里民国武师的风范。不过,笔者没有亲眼见证过师祖的实战,但他的徒弟们却是很少进行技击训练的,同门或者门派之间的切磋也仅限于推手或散手。

香港TVB曾经拍摄过一套名为《功夫传奇》的纪录片,与中央电视台拍的那些刻意神话中国武术的纪录片相比,前者基本还原了中国武术的真实面貌。同样是探寻中国各地各派武术,《功夫传奇》里的主角都是各类武术或搏击的爱好者,他们每一集都会与各派拳师实战比武。该纪录片最大的价值就在于还原了中国传统武术目前整体技击水平低下的真实面貌。正如一位拳师在纪录片中坦言:“我们平时很少进行实战训练,这样比武真的很有意义”。这就解释了,为什么CCTV里的传统武术擂台上的拳师比武的时候彷如街头打架,最富有攻击力的还是双腿乱蹬,拳头乱砸。

总体而言,中国武术界的训练方式基本不习惯加入技击环节,这就导致了中国武术练习者不知如何搏击。即便拳师会拆解各个招式的攻防含义,但实际上在临敌应战时刻大多数拳师恐怕自己都无法完成一个招式。这也是促使笔者转向学习咏春拳的根本原因。与八极拳类似,咏春拳的训练完全围绕实战进行,它也是最为接近现代搏击的武术。咏春拳练习者必须接受大量黏手训练,这是非常接近于实战的训练方式。咏春之所以成为最为风靡全球的中国武术之一,靠的便是其实战效果。而太极,则靠的是健身效果出众。

笔者的咏春拳师父系香港著名的拳师,黄淳梁的得意弟子。香港习武之风甚浓,但与内地武术界浮夸风盛行不同的是,香港人很务实,拜师前会了解师父的实战能力。加之近代以来武馆之间常常彼此切磋(踢馆),香港武师被迫必须掌握实战技能方能开馆收徒。黄淳梁当年便被武术界称为“讲手王”。著名功夫巨星李小龙的功夫大多系黄淳梁所授,直到生前最后一次切磋,仍不是他师兄的对手,以致于他公开表示想“收回”截拳道。饶是如此,他与泰拳高手交手,依然不敌。

八十年代香港与台湾武术界曾多次赴泰国交流,每次都铩羽而归。相比起刚刚从文革中恢复武术运动的中国大陆,当时香港与台湾却处于武术鼎盛时期,因此也集聚了一大批优秀的拳师。面对不敌泰拳,当时的武术界除了感到羞愧,的确泛起一股悲观的气氛。这也为中国日后散打运动崛起埋下了伏笔。

当神秘主义遇上民族主义

虽然中国传统武术界的技击水平长期以来饱受质疑,但如果说传统武术不具备技击功能则显然有悖事实了。古代中国由于政府的暴力往往鞭长莫及,在土匪猖獗的地方,社会秩序常常只能依靠宗族建立自卫团体。在这些地方,习武之风自然颇盛。中国所有的传统武术的诞生必然伴随着格斗的意义,即便是太极也不例外。这一点连徐晓冬也承认,他反对的不是太极,而是太极的骗子。

令人遗憾的是,传统武术的技击含义一步步丧失。中国乡土秩序“差序格局”的特点在武术中的表现便是内外有别,数不清的武术在保守的思想观念驱动下因没有继承人而失传。近代以来火器进入中国对传统武术造成了巨大的心理冲击,民国时期中国武术界的自信心跌入谷底。虽然经历过一次复兴,但在文革中被彻底捣碎。笔者外公曾感慨,他亲眼所见许多武术高手在文革期间或死或疯,挺过来的,大多万念俱灰。改革开放以后,随着中国社会发展,治安状况大大改善,武术原本的格斗功能也大大地失去了原有的价值。加之中国政府开始大力提倡武术的运动价值而刻意回避其技击价值,致使中国传统武术虽再度复兴却与体操运动并无二致了。

徐晓冬所揭开的,不过是一个刻意被掩盖的事实罢了。只是他所作所为之所以令中国武术界感到尴尬,是因为长期以来中国武术界某种利益的共谋使得大量并不掌握格斗技巧和武术真谛的拳师随着中国传统文化复兴纷纷粉墨登场。他们以传统文化传承者自居,却行欺世盗名谋取私利之实。

某氏太极拳有“四大金刚”的说法,其中一位“金刚”最喜欢表演定步功夫,让一排人推他。只要学过初中物理就知道一个人推力与一排人的推力大小没有区别。然而这样的把戏却轻易蒙蔽了海外内无数人。这位大师所使用的把戏在中国武术界其实非常普遍。因为中国拳师大多不具备真正的格斗技能,只能依靠一些力学的技巧、神秘主义哲学、心灵鸡汤和几套武术体操蒙蔽别人。

中国传统文化中有一套的神秘主义话语体系。这一套话语体系的建立一方面出于中国知识分子对思想体系进行哲学化尝试的目的,另一方面也迎合了官方试图用神秘主义话语包装知识和思想以垄断知识权力的需求。这套话语体系“玄之又玄”,玄奥难明、抽象模糊的词语和隐义难窥其背后的真实含义。汉语本身的缺陷——难以精确定义更是加重了这套话语体系的神秘色彩。这套神秘主义话语体系掩盖了中国传统文化中大量的糟粕,因为其本身就是一种糟粕。中国武术,也同样被这套话语体系一层又一层地包裹着。

基于维护武术群体的私利和荣誉,中国武术界延续了神秘主义话语对中国武术的包装。近年出现所谓太极大师“隔空发劲”的耸人新闻,便是这一闹剧的登峰造极。中国武师善于讲述一些难以考证的故事,对功夫进行神秘化。尽管有时只是口口相传,但他们在没有亲眼见证的情况下选择相信,其实就是希望借助神秘主义为自己的武术赋予权威性。

糟糕的是,当神秘主义遇上了民族悲情和民族自卑泛滥,一场奇妙的集体意淫盛况便愈演愈烈。西方列强在近现代带给中国的屈辱在中国爱国主义教育下形成了某种共同的悲情记忆和屈辱体验,中国人对复仇和自信的渴望往往外化为集体意淫行为。“中国拳师痛击大力士”这类故事,就常常成为中国人乐此不疲的快感源泉。即便到了今天,《叶问》、《霍元甲》系列依然可以凭借这种套路赢得高票房,而这种电影依然让不少影迷酣畅淋漓大呼过瘾,制作团队就是吃准了中国观众在民族身份上的极度自卑所隐含的求偿心理。

一个个难以考证是否存在的武师,逐渐被捧上神坛,成为民族自豪的图腾。从黄飞鸿、霍元甲到陈真,无一不是商业包装下民族主义与神秘主义勾兑的产物。中国传统武术的健身价值不可否认,但它如果继续故步自封自欺欺人,走向没落将是它难以摆脱的宿命。

(本文出自公众号:mozhelj。本文仅代表作者观点。)

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责任编辑:屠震林 PS040

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